BUSINESS CREATIVITY AND THE CREATIVE ECONOMY, 5 (1) 2019 Article 1 | pages 1-12
Issue Copyright 2019 Tinkr
Article Copyright 2019 Mozhgan Ghasemi
ISSN: 2334-1130 print/2334-1149 online DOI: 10.18536/jge.2016.01.1.1.02
Presenting an entrepreneurial developmental model
Iran Public Libraries Using the Creativity and
Psychological Empowerment of Employees
University of Ahvaz, Iran and Farideh Osareh
At the present time, employees’ innovative thoughts and ideas can be assumed to represent the origin of big changes in organizations. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship of the perceived organizational support and organizational creative climate with entrepreneurial development among the library employees. Creativity and psychological empowerment were examined as mediators. The sample of the study included 410 employees of Khuzestan Province Public Library Institution who were selected by random stratified sampling method and responded the organizational creative climate, perceived organizational support, psychological empowerment, organizational creativity questionnaires and also the entrepreneurial behavior inventory. For analyzing the data, in addition to use of descriptive methods (mean, Standard Deviation and correlation matrix), structural equation model (SEM) was used to check the proposed model, with the help of AMOS 21. Mediating relationships were tested in the proposed model by bootstrap method. Fit indices such as GFI, CGI, and RESMA have necessary quorum indicating that the proposed model fit with data. Results of the study showed the significance of all direct paths of perceived organizational support and organizational creative climate towards the entrepreneurial development. The insignificant paths were deleted, the model was modified and corrected. Fit indices of structural equation model showed the suitable fitness of modified model. Meanwhile, results of indirect relationships confirmed the significance of these relations. Summarizing the key findings, able people develop new ideas because of their sense of competence and mastery of the environment and go beyond learning to produce and develop self-awareness. Employees who are self-confident and motivated face challenges and seek a better alternative solution.
Department of Knowledge and Information Science | Masjed Soleyman Branch | Islamic Azad university |
Masjed Soleyman | Iran
Corresponding author: Mozhgan Ghasemi | firstname.lastname@example.org
Note: The author attests that there are no conflicts of interest, that the data reported here are not used in any other publications and there are no infringements on previous copyrights.
Tremendous and big changes and evolutions resulting from the increasing growth of knowledge, industry and technology in human life have made the different countries to find appropriate and effective solutions for enjoying such changes more and apply them. Thinkers and intellectuals define the entrepreneurship as one of the most important solution which now has attracted most countries across the world.
As Tajdini (2010) mentioned, during the last years, scholars of all fields have become highly interested in discussions of customer orientation, innovation and organizational entrepreneurship. Organizational entrepreneurship means an organization’s obligation to create and consume new products and services, new processes and novel organizational system. Such type of entrepreneurship is also called Corporate Entrepreneurship, Public Entrepreneurship or entrepreneurial organization (Zabihi & Moghaddasi, 2006). This kind of entrepreneurship is discussed through present study. We investigate the relationship among the research variables to make the proposed entrepreneurial development model in Khuzestan Province Public Libraries. A review of literature in the field of organizational climate of creativity and perceived organizational support with entrepreneurship shows different results in this field so that in most studies, there is a positive significant relationship between the organizational climate of creativity and perceived organizational support with entrepreneurial development. A factor affecting the organizational entrepreneurship is the organizational climate. Organizational climate refers to the repeated models of behaviors, attitudes and feelings which are understood and interpreted within the daily behaviors by people at working places. Such behavioral models of organizational climate are an independent aspect of attitude toward the organization which is reflected in the employees’ viewpoint to organization (Ekvall, 1991; Ekvall & Isaksen, 2007). Understanding the behaviors by people influences their attitude to work as well as the performance levels and consequently their efficiencies (Amabile & Gryslciewjez, 1989; Ekvall, 1991; Ekvall & Isaksen, 2010). In their study, Scheepers et al. (2008) showed that there is a direct relationship between the organizational entrepreneurial climate and innovation. There is also a relationship between the indices of managerial support and reward and independence at work and innovation.
Anthony (2005) emphasized the critical role of entrepreneurial climate and environment in this field and considered the management support, risk-taking, reward system, and resources and supporter structure as the appropriate characteristics of entrepreneurial climate. He believes that people’s understanding and belief from the entrepreneurial climate affects significantly entrepreneurial and innovative activities of university. Karimi (2013) in his study, showed that there is positive and significant relationship between all dimensions of entrepreneurial climate and intra- organizational entrepreneurship and from among the factors of organizational climate, the highest correlation coefficient with intra-organizational entrepreneurship is allocated to the agreement on trends. Nahid (2013) showed that managerial support, organization borders flexibility, time availability, reward and empowerment of employees affect the innovation, but working autonomy has no effect on innovation. Although it was finally revealed that organizational entrepreneurial climate has a significant impact of the organizational innovation. Leaders’ supporting behaviors and the organizational climate can provide the perceived organizational support where the organizational support means generated feelings and believes of people in this regard; the organization appreciates its member’s cooperation, assistance and support and has concerns on their happiness and future (Eisenberger et al ,1986). Inattention to welfare and comfort issues of employees reduces their motivation. In this case, employees likely exit their organizations and join other ones which understand their problems and provide them with good facilities (Farajpahlou & Ghasemi, 2015). Employees who experience a huge amount of perceived organizational support feel that they have to play their role concerning the appropriate behaviors and attitudes so that their actions are in line with their related organization benefits and hence compensate the organization support. Hariri et al. (2013) in a research aiming at measuring the relationship between perceived organizational support and organizational indifference among the librarians concluded that among the population librarians, the perceived organizational support level is lower than the average and organizational indifference level is also lower than the average and there is inverse significant relationship between the perceived organizational support and organizational indifference among the librarians attending the population. In meta-analysis research, Riggle et al. (2009) suggested that receiving the organizational support increases the commitment and participation considerably and promotes the high performance of employees in organization. Tabarsa (2012) argued that organizational entrepreneurship faces have not reached level in Public Libraries Institution. Statistical tests of hypotheses also showed that three components of organizational chart, organizational climate and innovative organizational culture are not in desirable level; but the variable of manpower capabilities enjoys a desirable level. In a study aiming the investigating the effect of entrepreneurial orientation on the organizational performance of Iran Public Libraries Institution on the structural model section, Saberi (2016) showed that entrepreneurial orientation has a positive and significant impact on the organizational performance of Iran Public Libraries Institution. Organizational entrepreneurship exists in various forms and each organization should create its own special model. Figure 1 shows the proposed model for the current study of which the relationship between the variables have been extracted based on the previous studies already mentioned briefly
1. Organizational creative climate affects the entrepreneurial development among the employees of Khuzestan Public Libraries Institution.
2. Perceived organizational support affects the entrepreneurial development among the employees of Khuzestan Public Libraries Institution.
3. Organizational creativity and psychological empowerment are the mediating factors for relationship between the perceived organizational support and organizational creative climate among the employees of Khuzestan Public Libraries Institution.
The method of present study is of correlation type through structural equation modeling (SEM) which is a multivariate correlation method. Population includes all employees of Khuzestan Province Public Libraries which have been more than 410 persons as per the latest census (October 2015). Due to the wide range of statistical population, total population was studied as the sample and the research tools included the questionnaire. Of all questionnaires submitted, 203 were returned. For data nalysis SPSS Vesion 21 and AMOS 21 were used.
Various tools have been used to measure the given variables, including the following:
Entrepreneurial behavior in organization questionnaire
To measure the entrepreneurial development, questionnaire of entrepreneurial behavior in organization developed by Zampetakis and Moustakis (2007) was used. The main format of this questionnaire includes 12 items of which 10 items are based on the study of Pearce et al (1997) and two other ones are in field of supporting the entrepreneurial behaviors. In the present study, 10-item format including 8 items for innovative behaviors and 2 items for supporting field, was used. The scoring procedure is in 5-scale spectrum from fully disagree to fully agree. To investigate the questionnaire’s reliability coefficients, Cronbach’s alpha and split-half coefficients have been used. Obtained results were 0.69 and 0.64, respectively.
Perceived organizational support questionnaire
To measure the perceived organizational support, the short form of organizational Eisenberger et al (1986; quoted from Presson, 2012) was used. This inventory contained 8 items of which the objective is to measure the perceived organizational support by employees and its responses are scored based on the 5-point Likert scale from 1 (fully disagree) to 5 (fully agree). Presson (2012) presented wide evidence on this questionnaire’s validity and reliability. Coefficient of perceived organizational support questionnaire was obtained as 0.87 and 0.86 by Cronbach’s alpha and split-half methods, respectively indicating its acceptable reliability coefficient.
Psychological empowerment questionnaire
To measure the psychological empowerment, Spreitzer (1995) psychological empowerment questionnaire was used. This inventory includes 12 items which measure four dimensions of significance (3 items), competency (3 items), self-determination (3 items) and effectiveness (3 items) of which the responses are scored in 5-point Likert scale from from 1 (fully disagree) to 5 (fully agree). Spreitzer (1995) used the confirmatory factor analysis for determining the convergent and discriminant validities of question where the data had high fitness and RMSEA was obtained equivalent to 0.04. The reliability coefficient of psychological empowerment questionnaire was obtained 0.85 and 0.59 through Cronbach’s alpha and split-half methods, respectively indicating its acceptable reliability coefficient.
Organizational creativity questionnaire
To measure the organizational creativity, Zhou & George (2001) questionnaire was used which includes 13 items. This scale measures two general dimensions of ideas novelty (9 items) and ideas applicability (4 items) of which the responses are scored in 5-point Likert scale from from 1 (fully disagree) to 5 (fully agree). On the study by Zampetakis (2007) for determining the questionnaire validity, by use of confirmatory factor analysis, questions made factor loading on two dimensions of ideas novelty and ideas applicability. This questionnaire was firstly translated and used by Mashayekhi et al (2014). In their study, they used the confirmatory factor analysis to determine the validity of questionnaire and model fit indicators show an acceptable fitness (RMSEA = 0.08). these scholars also used the Cronbach’s alpha to determine the questionnaire reliability where the reliability coefficient was ideas novelty and ideas applicability was 0.84 and 0.79, respectively and for the whole questionnaire was obtained 0.90. To determine the reliability coefficient of the organizational creativity questionnaire, two methods of Cronbach’s alpha and split-half were used of which the the reliability coefficient was obtained 0.90 and 0.87 for Cronbach’s alpha and split-half methods, respectively, indicating its acceptable reliability coefficient.
Organizational creative climate questionnaire
To measure the organizational creative climate, the modified version of Situational Outlook Questionnaire (SOQ) developed and revalidated by Isaksen& Ekvall (2007) was used. This questionnaire includes 21 items and measures the organization climate in 9 areas of challenge, freedom, trust, idea time, happiness and humour, conflict, supporting the ideas, discourse, risk-taking and the the responses are scored in 5-point Likert scale from from 1 (fully disagree) to 5 (fully agree). Many studies have reviewed the initial scale validity (Turnipseed, 1994; Isaksen& Ekvall, 2007). This questionnaire was firstly translated and used by Mashayekhi, Arshadi and Nisi (2014). In their study, Mashayekhi et al (2014) used the confirmatory factor analysis to measure the questionnaire validity of which the results showed that questionnaire has appropriate validity (GFI = 0.89, AGFI = 0.88, NFI = 0.86, CFI = 0.89, IFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.07). Cronbach’s alpha and split-half methods were used for determining the reliability coefficient of organizational creative climate questionnaire where the results obtained by Cronbach’s alpha and split-half were 0.89 and 0.74, respectively indicating its acceptable reliability coefficient.
In sum, relationship between variables was investigated in the proposed model. Table 2 shows the descriptive findings related to mean, SD, minimum and maximum of samples scores on the research variables. Table 3 also indicates the correlation matrix among the variables.
Structural equation modelling
Table 2. Descriptive findings related to the research variables
The model proposed consists of 5 variables where the perceived organizational support and organizational creative climate as the predictor’s variable, entrepreneurial behaviour development in organization as the output variables, and empowerment and organizational creativity as the mediator variables. To evaluate the proposed model, structural equation modelling (SEM) was used. Before investigating the structural coefficients, fitness of proposed model was reviewed. Fitness of initial model is reported in table 4 based on the fitness indices used. Since the values of some fit indices indicated an acceptable fit of proposed model with data, but values of several indices showed that the proposed model needs to be corrected. To enhance the model fitness, insignificance paths were deleted from the model and as it is seen in table 4, the final model enjoys a relative good fitness.
Table 3. Correlation coefficient matrix between the research variables
Table 4. Fit indices for the proposed and final model
In figure 2, the final model and its standard beta coefficient in various paths are shown.
Findings related to the mediating relations
Results related to the indirect relations of the present study are given in table 5.
To determine the significance of mediating relations, bootstrapping was used. Table 5 shows the results obtained from the bootstrapping for mediating paths.
Table 5. Bootstrapping results for mediating paths
Table 5 shows that zero is not within the aforementioned confidence intervals, hence all indirect relations are significant.
The present study was conducted aiming at testing and presenting a model of antecedents affecting the entrepreneurial development among the employees of Khuzestan Province Public Libraries Institution. Most relations obtained are consistent with the previous findings. Since it is not possible to discuss the individual findings of this study and interpret them, therefore, general issues are referred. As seen in correlation matrix (table 3), in accordance with the prediction, most research variables are significantly correlated. In the field of impact of perceived organizational support variable on the entrepreneurial development, study results show the direct effect of perceived organizational support on entrepreneurial development among the employees of Public Libraries Institution.
This finding is consistent with the studies by scholars like Eisenberger et al (2001), Hariri et al (2013). In explaining this findings, it can be said that employees who experience the huge amount of perceived organizational support feel that they have served in view of the appropriate attitudes and behaviours in public libraries so that their actions would be in line with the organizational benefits and they compensate the organization support by this way and hence they are looking for new solutions for solving the working problems to be attracted by the organizational entrepreneurial behaviours. Concerning the effect of organizational creative climate on the entrepreneurial development, this study showed that the organizational creative climate has a positive significant impact on entrepreneurial development.
Our results are consistent with Kuratko and Hodgetts (1989) and Tabarsa (2010). In explaining this conclu- sion, it can be said that giving freedom to employees and support of top management of Khuzestan Province Public Libraries Institution expedites the events and decided to act in the organization of which the final consequence is the entrepreneurial business planning and implementation of entrepreneurial ideas. The present study showed that the organizational creative climate has a positive significant impact on the organizational creativity which is consistent with the researches by scientists like Isaksen (2011). In interpreting this finding, it can be argued that risk level is high within the organizations with creative climate and courageous initiatives are created even in a status where the outputs are unknown. By this, people feel that they can take risks on their ideas. In the organizations with creative climate, discourse is prevalent, most opinions are heard, people present their ideas for discussion and review and use of other people’s point of view. People often can see and hear the oppositions and share the various viewpoints leading to an increase in idea production and as a result organizational creativity (Isaksen, 2007).
Concerning the psychological empowerment variable, this study showed that this variable affects significantly the organizational creativity which is consistent with the studies by Thomas & Veithouse (1990). In explanation of this conclusion, it can be stated that empowered people produce new ideas due to a feeling of competency and dominance on the environment and achieve more learning and self-actualization beyond the production of these ideas. Employees who believe in their capabilities and have the necessary motivation, resist the challenges and obtain more appropriate alternative solutions. In the field of effect of organizational creative climate, this study indicated that the organizational creative climate has a positive significant impact on the entrepreneurial development among the employees of Public Libraries Institution. This finding is consistent with the study by Kuratko and Hodgetts (1989). In explaining this finding, it can be argued that giving freedom to employees and top management support inside the organizations expedite the events and decided to act of which the final result is entrepreneurial business planning and entrepreneurial ideas implementation.
Meanwhile, the research findings showed that the perceived organizational support variable has a positive significant impact on the entrepreneurial development among the employees of Public Libraries Institution which is consistent with the studies by Eisenberger et al. (2001). In explanation of this finding, it can be said that based on the interaction norm, when the employees receive the support and benefits from their organization and supervisors, they try to compensate these services by more commitments, more effort for organization success, more risk-taking in performing the duties, creativity, innovation and entrepreneurial behaviours (Eisenberger et al, 2001). This study showed that organizational creativity has a positive significant effect on the entrepreneurial development among the employees of Public Library Institution. It is inferred that when the organizational creativity is in high level, it leads to a new thought through idea engineering and controlling the creative imaginations and by managing the idea, scientific ideas are created by innovation and entrepreneurship of services and products.
According to the above discussion, it can be stated that the organizational creative climate and perceived organizational support lead to the development of entrepreneurial behaviors within an organization through the impact on empowerment and enhancement of organizational creativity; therefore, to promote behaviours related to entrepreneurship, organizational support, and creative environment should be paid more attention. On the basis of the results, the following suggestions are presented in line with the entrepreneurial development and growth within the Public Library Bodies institution. Finally, it can be stated that the organizational creative climate and perceived organizational support lead to development of entrepreneurial behaviours within organization through the impact on empowerment and enhancement of organizational creativity; therefore, to promote the behaviours related to the entrepreneurship, variables of organizational support and creative climate should be paid more attention. On the basis of results, the following suggestions are presented in line with entrepreneurial development and growth within the Public Libraries Institution organization.
- Culture development and entrepreneurial climate in Public Libraries Institution; means a culture that allow the entrepreneurship is developed, despite all existing limitations (culture of failure danger and error tolerance) and in this regard, a section within the human resources department is established where the people interested in entrepreneurship is trained and encouraged.
- Forming a group for producing and presenting the new services and products in Research and Development (R&D) Division of Public Libraries Institution which needs financial and spiritual support; the new Division should have this authority to restructure sections of organization to make them closer to the organizational entrepreneurship objectives. This Division should support the entrepreneurial culture and train the employees for generating new and various ideas.
- Establishing a branch for creating new products and services in Public Libraries Institution by experts with innovative ideas: advantage of this separate section in Public Libraries Institution is that it can take advantage of results of entrepreneurial activities, regardless of the fact that these activities are places for other activities of holding organization.
- Supporting the people with new ideas by Public Libraries Institution management: designing a reward system for the organizational entrepreneurs requires that the top managers become aware of their needs and ordinary employees. This reward should be both monetary and non-monetary; but the non-monetary aspects are more important. The non-monetary rewards for organizational entrepreneurs is: recognizing his performance, its effect on the reward, preparing the contingency budgets, creating supportive groups or dual organizations, promotion based on the performance in development of entrepreneurial projects.
- Holding training classes, definition and problem- solving, and creativity techniques for employees of Public Libraries Institution towards expansion of creativity and innovation culture.
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